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More evidence traumatic brain injuries raise later dementia risk

(Reuters Health) – During the primary 12 months after a traumatic brain damage (TBI), the risk of growing dementia rises four- to six-fold, based on a big Swedish research that adopted hundreds of thousands of individuals age 50 or older for many years.

People who skilled average, extreme and repeated TBIs have been on the best risk, and total, the percentages of a dementia analysis decreased over time. Those odds have been nonetheless considerably greater, nonetheless, for individuals with a historical past of TBI even 30 years after the damage when in comparison with individuals who had by no means skilled TBI, the research staff stories in PLoS ONE.

“Hopefully the potential impact of head injuries with respect to long term outcomes will be a little more in the spotlight as a result of the study,” coauthor Peter Nordstrom of the division of neighborhood medication and rehabilitation at Umea University instructed Reuters Health by e-mail.

TBI normally occurs when a sudden bump, blow or jolt to the pinnacle causes the brain to bounce round contained in the cranium, damaging brain cells, resulting in chemical adjustments within the brain, or each. The mildest type of TBI is a concussion.

Many research have tried to verify a hyperlink between brain damage and later dementia, however they’ve had blended outcomes, the authors observe.

In the present research, researchers discovered that total, the risk of dementia was elevated by about 80 p.c throughout a mean 15-year follow-up interval after a traumatic brain damage.

“I think this study is one of the strongest pieces of evidence to date that this relationship exists,” mentioned Patrick Frost Bellgowan of the U.S. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke in Bethesda, Maryland, who wasn’t concerned within the analysis. “The study’s strength is its size and quality of the data,” he mentioned in a phone interview.

“It is not going to inform us about concussion in young people and subsequent neurodegeneration,” Frost Bellgowan famous. “The study has hints of that, but the data is very sparse. We’ll have to wait decades to find out.”

Nordstrom and a colleague examined the medical information of three,329,360 women and men in Sweden over age 50 searching for diagnoses of dementia and any historical past of TBI.

Between 2005 and 2012, they discovered, 164,334 individuals had been recognized with TBI and had no prior analysis of dementia and 136,233 people have been recognized with an unspecified dementia. Both teams have been matched with teams of comparable however wholesome management topics. A 3rd research group consisted of 46,970 sibling pairs, one among whom had skilled TBI and the opposite had not.

Overall, 6.three p.c of the individuals who had ever skilled TBI and three.6 p.c of the remainder of the research inhabitants have been recognized with dementia. In each classes, these recognized with dementia additionally had different robust risk components for dementia that included their age, alcohol use, early retirement and despair.

The affiliation between dementia and TBI was stronger for individuals recognized with dementia earlier than age 65 than for these recognized later in life. The affiliation between TBI and dementia within the siblings group was just like that of the opposite two teams, and researchers discovered no notable variations between women and men.

During the primary 12 months after a light head damage, the risk of growing dementia was three.52 instances greater than for individuals who had no TBI. Although this risk subsequently declined, it remained 25 p.c greater three a long time later, particularly for vascular dementia, in comparison with somebody who by no means had a TBI.

Among the research’s limitations, the authors observe, is that the outcomes are based mostly on commentary solely, so they can’t show that TBI causes elevated dementia risk.

“There seems to be a relationship between TBI and dementia, but it will be tough to personalize it,” Frost Bellgowan mentioned.

In the longer term he hopes that scientists will study whether or not there are various kinds of dementia that come up from a TBI, or if the damage causes a singular kind of dementia.

“The public should react with caution to this study and press for more research,” mentioned Donald Stein, director of the Brain Research Lab within the emergency medication division at Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta, who wasn’t concerned within the research. “Don’t allow children to start sports too young and prevent them from getting cumulative injuries,” Stein instructed Reuters well being in a phone interview.

SOURCE: bit.ly/2DZg5Ch PLoS ONE, on-line January 30, 2018.

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